Patricia M. Kremer

Much of my research has focused on the ecology of gelatinous zooplankton including the significance of these watery non-crustacean zooplankton in marine ecosystems. For several species, my investigations have been among the first quantitative investigations of elemental composition, metabolic rates and nutritional ecology. My studies are typically broad, investigating several aspects of the ecology of the target species. Although my research has primarily involved the autecology of single species, I have attempted to evaluate the results in the context of the ecosystem in which the animals live and the biogeochemical cycles of which they are a part.

Past research has included a variety of studies that have attempted to understand the bioenergetics of gelatinous organisms. Part of this work has been comparative studies of respiration and excretion rates for several species of ctenophores, salps, medusae and siphonophores in both subtropical and temperate waters. Other studies, primarily with ctenophores, include experimental investigations of feeding, growth and fecundity, and formulations of elemental budgets and growth models based on the experimental results.

My investigations of a scyphozoan medusa with symbiotic dinoflagellates included photophysiology, respiration, ingestion, nutrient uptake, reproduction and growth in an attempt to measure directly all the major fluxes for carbon and nitrogen in this algal-animal symbiotic association. Studies of salps have included quantification of biomass, feeding rates, defecation rates and size retention efficiency of particulate prey. When abundant, salps can be responsible for a considerable amount of vertical flux as they transform small particulates into fast-sinking feces.

My long-term research goal is to understand how biotic and abiotic factors influence the population dynamics of conspicuous gelatinous species and contribute to observed seasonal and interannual variability in abundance.

Oceanography Alumni

Brennan Phillips – M.Sc. 2007


Kremer, P. and M.R. Reeve. 1989. Growth dynamics of a ctenophore Mnemiopsis in relation to variable food supply II: Carbon budgets and growth model. J. Plankton Res. 11: 553-574.

Kremer, P., J. Costello, J. Kremer and M. Canino. 1990. Photobiology of the scyphomedusa Linuche unguiculata and the significance of endosymbionts to their carbon budget. Limnol. Oceanog. 35: 609-624.

Kremer, P., and L.P. Madin. 1992. Particle retention efficiency of salps. J. Plankton Res. 14: 1009-1015.

Kremer, P. 1994. Patterns of abundance for Mnemiopsis in US coastal waters: a comparative overview. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 51: 347-354.

Madin, L.P. and P. Kremer. 1995. Determination of the filter feeding rates of salps (Tunicata, Thaliacea). ICES J. Mar. Res. 52: 583-595.